Clinical epidemiology of retinoblastoma at the Philippine General Hospital:1998-2008
Sharlene I. Noguera, MD, Gary John V. Mercado, MD, Darby E. Santiago, MD
This study determined the clinical characteristics of retinoblastoma (RB) from 1998 to 2008 and compared the epidemiological and clinical patterns with those of the period from 1967 to 2001.
We reviewed the clinical records of 152 patients with RB from 1998 to 2008 in terms of demographic and ophthalmological data and clinical staging or classification.
Sixty-three percent of cases were unilateral and 37% were bilateral. Three (3%) of 95 unilateral cases and 7 (12%) of 57 bilateral cases had family history of RB (p = 0.038). The mean age at onset was 17.8 months for unilateral and 7.4 months for bilateral cases, while the mean age at diagnosis was 26.4 months and 13.7 months respectively. The delay from onset to diagnosis was 69% in unilateral and 56% in bilateral RB groups. Financial cost (71.4%) was the leading reason for delay, followed by misdiagnosis (24.5%), and inaccessibility of medical facility (2.0%). The most common manifestations were leukocoria (77%), extraocular findings of orbital mass (9%), and proptosis (6%). Advanced intraocular stage was seen in 63 – 71.6% among those with unilateral and 56 – 60% in those with bilateral tumor.
The onset of disease had not changed over the years, but patients in general were brought earlier for consultation. Most cases presented in the advanced stage. Decreasing the occurrence of extraocular RB through early consultation and treatment can improve patient survival.
Keywords: Retinoblastoma, Intraocular tumor, Epidemiology