Vol 36 No 2 Original Article PDF

Translation and validation of a Filipino version of the glaucoma quality-of-life questionnaire

Carlo Josemaria D Rubio, MD; M B Agulto, MD


This study validated the functionality and value of a Filipino version of the Glaucoma Quality-of-Life 15 Questionnaire (GQL 15) as a tool in managing glaucoma among Filipinos.


The GQL 15 was translated using the forward-backward-forward translation method. Discrepancies were reconciled by the research group, producing a final forward translation (FFT). The FFT was pretested on patients from the University of the Philippines–Philippine General Hospital, along with the GQL 15. A multidisciplinary group of ophthalmologists and healthsocial-science experts analyzed the results of the pretest to determine the functionality and necessity of the FFT. The FFT was used on glaucoma patients composed of 1 set with glaucomatous automated visual fields, 1 set with glaucomatous disc photos, and a control group. The results were analyzed via an independent t-test.


The pretest in 9 patients showed that the FFT was functional. Majority preferred answering the FFT to the GQL 15. Differences were noted in the answers to FFT vs. GQL 15. A Filipino translation was deemed necessary. The answers of patients in the glaucomatous automated visual-field group (n = 14) and the glaucomatous disc photo group (n = 9) were significantly higher than those of the control group (n = 16) (p = 0.05). These results were similar to those of the GQL 15.


The Filipino version of the GQL 15 is a necessary and valid tool in managing glaucoma among Filipinos.

Keywords: Glaucoma, Quality of life, Translation