Vol. 43 No. 2 Original Research PDF

Translation and Validation of a Filipino Version of the Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire

James Abraham B. Lee, MD, Andrea Kristina F. Monzon-Pajarillo, MD, Alvina Pauline D. Santiago, MD


The objectives of this study were to translate into Filipino the Children’s Visual Function Questionnaire for children 3 years and above (CVFQ3plus), and to validate the translated CVFQ3plus to be used locally to assess the quality of life (QoL) of Filipino children aged 3 to 7 years old with visual impairment.


Study Design: The study was a single-center, non-randomized translation and validation study. Translation: The CVFQ3plus translation into Filipino involved translation, reconciliation, pretesting, and small group discussion, based on the KIDSCREEN Group Translation and Validation procedures. Participants and Sampling: Convenience sampling was done to select the participants of the study. Participants were included in the study if they were parents or primary caregivers of children aged 3-7 years old who were noncompliant with treatment and/or those with non-treatable visual impairment defined as mild, moderate, severe unilateral, and severe bilateral. Procedure: All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, including determination of the visual acuity using either the LEA chart or HOTV chart, prior to the administration of both the Filipino and English versions of the CVFQ3plus to their parents or caregivers. Participants were also asked to do a self-rating of their English proficiency, and their preferred version of the CVFQ. Statistical Analysis: Chronbach’s Alpha with a 95% confidence interval was used to determine the validity and internal consistency of the Filipino version of the CVFQ3plus questionnaire.


A total of 122 participants were included in the study. Chronbach’s Alpha score (α=0.86, CI=95%) for the translated Filipino version of the CVFQ3plus suggests high reliability and internal consistency, comparable to the original English version of the questionnaire.


This study was able to produce a highly reliable and internally consistent Filipino version of the CVFQ3plus.

Keywords: CVFQ, quality of life questionnaires, visually-impaired children, QoL, Filipino children, vision questionnaire