The Filipino Adaptation of the Glaucoma Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Questionnaire
Ian Ben M. Batcagan, MD1,2, Nilo Vincent dG. FlorCruz II, MD3
1Department of Ophthalmology, Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center, Baguio City
2Department of Ophthalmology, Ilocos Training and Regional Medical Center, La Union
3Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of the Philippines – Philippine General Hospital, Manila
Corresponding Author: Ian Ben M. Batcagan, MD
Clinic Address: Department of Ophthalmology, Baguio General Hospital and Medical Center, Baguio City, Philippines
Contact Number: +6374-661-7909 local 787
Email Address: firstname.lastname@example.org
Disclosure: The authors have no financial disclosures to report.
Objectives: This study translated the Glaucoma Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (GMASQ) and tested the reliability of Filipino-adapted GMASQ.
Methods: A Filipino-adapted GMASQ was developed using the guidelines recommended for translating a validated health-related questionnaire into a culturally-adapted one. The methods included: (1) forward translation, (2) back-translation, (3) review and modification, (4) pre-testing and cognitive interviewing, and (5) final version testing. The provisional questionnaire was pre-tested on 20 glaucoma patients to determine its value and correspondence, generating a final forward questionnaire. The final version was administered to 48 patients. Its reliability was determined by computing for the Cronbach’s α for each item, per section, and overall. An item was removed if the α was <0.7.
Results: Eleven (11) pre-test subjects (55%) preferred the Filipino-adapted questionnaire, 6 (20%) had no preference, and 3 (25%) preferred the source questionnaire. The provisional Filipino-adapted GMASQ proved to be acceptable and with no changes made, the questionnaire was marked as the final version. The medication adherence self-efficacy scale showed Cronbach’s α of > 0.8 for all items with a section α = 0.84. The eye-drop technique had an α > 0.7 for each item and a section α = 0.80.
Conclusion: This study provided preliminary evidence of the feasibility, acceptance and reliability of the Filipino GMASQ.
Keywords: Glaucoma, Medication Adherence, Self-Efficacy, Questionnaire, Translation