Preseptal and orbital cellulitis at the Philippine General Hospital
Harvey S. Uy, MD, Prospero Ma. C. Tuaño, MD
To describe the clinical features, causative agents, management practices, and outcomes of preseptal and orbital cellulitis at a tertiary-care center in a developing country.
This is a retrospective case series of preseptal and orbital cellulitis seen at the Orbit Clinic of the Philippine General Hospital from January 1990 to December 1995. The medical records were reviewed and the following data obtained: age, gender, manner of disease presentation, causative agent, medical interventions, and outcomes.
Fifty-six patients with preseptal cellulitis and 35 with orbital cellulitis were identified. Among the patients with preseptal cellulitis, the mean age at presentation was 12.6 ± 17.0 years. No gender predilection was observed. The most common presenting signs were lid swelling (all patients), eye redness (34%), fever (29%), and eye discharge (27%). Bilateral involvement occurred in 9 patients. Among those with orbital cellulitis, 25 were classified as orbital cellulitis, 5 as orbital abscess, and 5 as cavernous sinus thrombosis. There were slightly more females than males (1.3:1). The mean age at presentation was 17.1 ± 18.6 years. The most common symptoms were lid swelling (94%), ophthalmoplegia (89%), chemosis (77 percent), proptosis (71%), and decreased vision (51%). Both conditions were associated with antecedent infectious conditions such as skin and lid infection, sinusitis, dental abscess, respiratory-tract infection, and trauma. Staphylococcus was the most common organism isolated. The most common initial antibiotics used were beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins. Other antibiotics were added based on clinical response and microbial studies. Orbital cellulitis was associated with sight threatening complications such as glaucoma, retinal vascular occlusion, exposure keratitis, and optic-nerve compression.
The etiology of preseptal and orbital cellulitis in this series differs from that in developed countries. Preseptal and orbital cellulitis should be distinguished early so that proper management can be instituted. Orbital cellulitis is associated with greater mortality and morbidity. CT scan and microbial studies are invaluable for appropriate diagnosis and management of orbital cellulitis.
Keywords: Preseptal, Orbital, Postseptal, Cellulitis