Epidemiology of Eyelid Trauma Among Filipino Patients in a Tertiary Hospital
Joanne Christine E. Macenas, MD1 , Alexander D. Tan, MD2
1Borja Family Hospital, Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines
2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Sentro Oftalmologico Jose Rizal
Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines, Manila, Philippines
Correspondence: Joanne Christine E. Macenas, MD
Eye Center at Borja Family Hospital
#19 Gallares Street, Poblacion II, Tagbilaran City, Bohol, Philippines 6300
Disclaimer: The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Objective: This study aims to identify the epidemiological characteristics and co-morbidities of eyelid injuries among Filipino patients seen at the Emergency and Out-patient Clinics of a single, tertiary, government, urbanbased hospital from June 2014 to June 2015.
Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive single-center study. Medical records of 85 patients who consulted at the Emergency or Out-Patient Clinics of the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Philippine General Hospital, Manila due to eyelid injuries that resulted to skin breaks with or without tissue loss or other ocular co-morbidities were reviewed. Information collected included: demographic data of the patient; the offending object; mechanism, place, date and time of injury; date and time of consult; possible risk factors and predisposing conditions such as alcohol intoxication and lack of use of protective gears. Complications associated with eyelid injuries were also noted. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of patient demographics, epidemiologic characteristics of eyelid injuries and its associated complications.
Results: Of the 85 cases, 78% were males. Most of the patients were below 50 years of age with a range of 1-79 and a mean age of 25 years old. There is male preponderance across all age groups except in the pediatric group below 10 years of age. The right eye was involved in 58% of cases. The most common area affected was the right lower lid as seen in 36 cases. Most of the eyelid injuries were severe: 21 (25%) were margin-involving, 17 (20%) had canalicular transection and 34 (40%) had both. Other co-morbidities included some degree of tissue loss or avulsion (16%) and globe involvement (29%). Majority were accidental (36%). Public places (33%) and the home (33%) were the most common places of injury. Most of the injuries that happened at home were accidents (82%) while those that occurred in public places were mostly assault cases (71%). The most common offending objects that caused the eyelid injuries included metal (33%), pavement/cement (18%), and wood (16%). The most common mechanism of injury was blunt trauma (67%). There were 18 cases of vehicular crash, 89% of the patients were not wearing helmets. All work-related injuries reported absence of protective gear. Alcohol intoxication was reported in 30% of assault cases and 72% of vehicular crash.
Conclusion: Eyelid injuries continue to pose as a public health concern. Campaigns organized toward educating the public can stress on the importance of increased vigilance regarding safety especially in children and young adults. Use of protective gear and eyewear while driving or working in hazardous environments should also be emphasized. Monitoring of public places for any disturbance can prevent violent acts from escalating. The AntiDrunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013 should also be strictly enforced.
Keywords: eyelid injuries, ocular trauma, vehicular crash, accidents, assault, drunk driving