Baseline Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Visual Outcomes of Eyes with Ethambutol Toxic Optic Neuropathy

Franz Marie Cruz, MD, DPBO

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To determine the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) in eyes with ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy (ETON) at the time of diagnosis and to describe the visual outcomes at 1, 3, and 6 months after discontinuation of ethambutol.

Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of 8 patients (15 eyes) diagnosed with ETON that had RNFL thickness measurements using Cirrus® spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) at the time of diagnosis. Visual function was measured on initial visit and at 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up. Snellen visual acuity was converted to logMAR. Color vision was measured using Ishihara 14-plate test chart.

Results: The mean duration from commencement of ethambutol intake to onset of visual symptoms was 16 weeks (range: 8-24). While, the mean duration from onset of visual symptoms to discontinuation of ethambutol was 4 weeks (range: 2-14). The mean global RNFL thickness at time of diagnosis was 101.2 ± 17.0 microns. Mean RNFL in the temporal, superior, nasal, and inferior sectors were as follows: 79.2 ± 15.4, 119.7 ± 27.9, 71.7 ± 9.2, and 136.7 ± 25.8 microns. Global and sectoral RNFL thicknesses were either normal or thick when compared to age-matched normal database. No eye displayed global or sectoral RNFL thinning. Mean baseline visual acuity and color vision were logMAR 1.2 and 5 plates, respectively. At 1, 3, and 6 months after discontinuation of ethambutol, mean visual acuity and color vision were 0.96 and 6, 0.63 and 11, and 0.44 and 13, respectively.

Conclusion: Patients with early ETON have normal or thick RNFL at time of diagnosis. They display good visual recovery 6 months following discontinuation of ethambutol.

Keywords: Ethambutol, toxic optic neuropathy, optical coherence tomography, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, ethambutol-induced toxic optic neuropathy